“未来之家”这么酷:小龙虾盖房子、空气洗手液、地板自发电!

刚刚过去不久的冬奥会不仅是体育盛宴,还可称为一场大型潮物新品“种草机”: 从设计师款运动羽绒服到奥运村的同款按摩床……与生活相关的产品总能收割一波大众“尝新欲”。但让我们特别关注的是,冬奥会所展示的新设计和新技术,尤其与“可持续发展”目标化合后的实际应用,恰是为我们打样了一个“绿色生活”的范本。

全球范围内,越来越多听起来“高精尖”的可持续发展创新技术与产品正在进入”寻常百姓家”。所以,在一个未来的“高科技可持续之家”中,到底可能出现一些什么令人惊喜的场景

冬奥会期间“火了”的智能按摩床,在“绿色奥运”理念之下,将在由冬奥村转化成的公寓、酒店中继续利用 ©️OFweek

零碳之家:自发电地板和空气洗手液

本届冬奥会上的“颜值担当”可能要数1.2万块光伏发电玻璃拼接而成的“冰丝带”。不过除了长相能打之外,这种宝石蓝色的特殊玻璃幕墙还是建筑承重部件,更可以通过吸收转化太阳能输出源源不断的清洁电力,在长达数十年的生命周期中为场馆持久输送电力。该建筑体可谓当前“太阳能光伏建筑一体化”(Building Integrated Photovoltaic,简称 BIPV)的巨型应用的最新代表。

“冰丝带”国家速滑馆夜景外观 ©️中新社

大到被越来越多建筑物开始采用的 BIPV 、小到我们日常消杀用的洗手液,从“地板发电”到“空气洗衣”……虽然离迈入真正的“零碳之家”还有不小距离,种种创新案例让我们依然充满期待。

走两步就能发电的地板

光伏发电固然美好,但是地域光照的间歇性和波动性也限制了部分地区对这一技术的应用。一些研究者另辟蹊径,从更恒定的物质上找发电灵感。比如,苏黎世联邦理工学院的研究团队发明出了一种木地板,通过对木材进行特殊处理,配合收集地板上的人类活动,实现为家庭供电

该创新的充电系统由两层经过处理的木材薄层组成,一层覆盖硅涂层,另一层嵌入金属离子,带电极的一层在下面。当人们走过地板时,电极会通过”摩擦电效应”而振动发电。

发电原理:当从轻木中去除稳定的木质素时,柔性纤维素层仍然存在(中间图示),然后挤压产生电压 ©️ETH Zurich

研究人员发现:该过程使木材产生的电流比普通木材自然产生的电流强 80 倍。实验数据显示:只需在 A4面积大小的木地板上反复按压摩擦几秒钟,地板的发电量就足够支撑整个家庭的 LED 照明系统。在该技术的早期展示阶段,实验室人员已做到仅通过在地板上走几步就能点亮台灯。

“史上最白”的白漆

美国普渡大学材料科学家开发出一种“超级白色涂料”,可以反射高达98%的太阳热量——相比之下,普通白漆只能反射80-85%。如果广泛地应用于屋顶和建筑物,这种新涂料可以显著降低建筑物冷却成本,从而减少碳排放,因为建筑运行最主要的碳排来源正来自于空调制热和制冷等供能。

普渡大学科学家向大家展示“最白白漆”的样本。 ©️Purdue

用‘脏空气”洁手、洗衣服

除了尽量减少排放温室气体的建筑和用电系统,在创新者引领的“零碳之家”中,常见家用日化用品甚至还可能承担起“负碳”的使命。

比如,美国纽约初创企业空气公司(Air Co.),开发了空气中提取二氧化碳、并将之与水结合,然后借助可再生的太阳能来转化为纯乙醇的工艺

在新冠疫情前,Air Co. 主打产品是这一“阳光、空气、水”技术生产的充气伏特加酒。疫情爆发后,市场对含酒精消毒液的需求大增,而乙醇恰巧也是洗手液中的关键活性成分。Air Co.响应政府号召和社会需求,将全部产能转向生产洗手液。

Air Co.“二氧化碳”洗手液外包装 ©️Air Co.

而就在不久前,国际日化巨头联合利华也推出用碳捕捉技术收集到的工业二氧化碳制成的洗衣凝珠,让我们离“用‘脏空气’洗衣服”又更近了一步。

联合利华旗下的奥妙洗衣凝珠中的关键成分——表面活性剂由工业二氧化碳为生产原料 ©️Unilever

循环经济:3D打印小橘灯、小龙虾“再就业”

“一个人的垃圾,另一个人的宝藏”,这句话用来描述循环经济打造的家居空间非常应景。在循环经济的“3R原则”——减量化、再利用、再循环(reduce, reuse, recycle)下,创新团队以各种创新材料和商业模式让产品生命实现无限“续杯”。

“化作春泥更护花”的咖啡胶囊

以一杯暖香的咖啡开启活力满满的一天,是很多人理想的居家场景。近年来,胶囊咖啡由于可以很好保存咖啡的新鲜度,受到了全球各地消费者的热捧。但是胶囊包装也会产生大量塑料和铝废弃物,绝大多数通过焚烧或者填埋处理。

加拿大植物材料公司 Nexe Innovations 以植物基包装方案解决了这一美味和环境“两难”的问题,经过5年的测试,研制出了 NEXE 胶囊——以聚乳酸(PLA)和竹纤维以及其他几种可堆肥成分混合而成的包装材料。该材料可在35天内完全实现生物降解,甚至为土壤供给肥料,不断提供循环价值,可谓一款“化作春泥更护花”的咖啡胶囊。

NEXE胶囊由3D打印技术制造,同样践行了“减量化”原作 ©️NEXE

餐余的新生:橘子皮3D 台灯

两三个橘子皮就能做成一盏台灯?位于意大利米兰的 Krill Design 做到了。其产品原材料所用的西西里橘子是当地盛产的水果。由于季节和产量的波动,“名产”橘子也常遭遇过剩浪费的情况。

Krill Design 团队通过循环重复利用过剩的橘子皮,将果皮中的纤维制成坚韧的纤维团,最终以3D 打印的方式制成了独特的循环材料“小橘灯” 。在灯的使用寿命完成后,灯身可以直接放入厨余或有机垃圾桶中回收,或成为家庭堆肥。

3D 橘子灯不仅实用、环保而且还凸显了意大利设计美学 

©️Krill Desig

小龙虾“再就业”

在中国,建造住宅的“大部头”建筑材料估计占建筑总生命周期排放量的55%。因此,创新团队一直致力于从建材这一源头有所突破。

伦敦中央圣马丁学院的两位毕业生提出了让我们眼前一亮的思路。两位女性创始人受到英国多数水域受外来物种美国小龙虾入侵新闻的启发,研制出了以小龙虾壳制成的混凝土替代品。该新型材料的坚固性、可塑性都优于传统水泥混凝土,却几乎不会产生碳排,而且还成功将入侵物种转化为经济和环境效益

由入侵物种小龙虾的壳制成的纯天然建筑材料 ©️DEZEEN

至于小龙虾壳之外的其他部分,循环利用的方式或许是中国消费者的餐桌?小龙虾壳盖房子、小龙虾肉做美食,经济、环境和胃口一回赢“三次”。

撰文:姚异姚

参考资料:

Artico Report 2022

https://www.eco-business.com/zh-hans/news/the-coolest-sustainability-innovations-of-2021/

https://mpower.in-en.com/html/power-2402608.shtml

https://i.ifeng.com/c/8DnWaekbsqz

https://www.unilever.com/news/press-and-media/press-releases/2021/world-first-laundry-capsule-in-market-made-from-industrial-carbon-emissions/

https://nexeinnovations.com/the-nexe-pod/

TECH & TREND | 解锁蚌壳的循环经济打开方式

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01 循环经济

1.1 塑料与循环经济相关政策探讨

在 RRS “一次性塑料和循环经济——影响全球包装政策”网络研讨会上,专家们讨论了循环经济如何影响支持再利用、可回收或可堆肥包装的政策。RRS 公司的高级顾问 Resa Dimino 谈到了一个正在受到更多关注、名为“生态调节”(eco-modulation)的想法,这是一种可用于生产者责任延伸制度(EPR)和其它收费项目的工具。“本质上,这是一种用于激励具备更好环境性能的包装、惩罚问题产品或包装的战略。” 她表示,有必要继续在现有的基础设施内促进可回收性,并激励生产者为提升可回收性做出改变。

图源: Circular Plastics Alliance

独立顾问 Garth Hickle 谈到了目前存在的挑战,认为美国现有回收系统中蕴含着“巨大的成本”,而这些成本不一定是“透明或受到公认的”。他说,“现有的项目数量太大,这实际上推高了成本。因此,无论是否实施 EPR,都需要采取措施减少单个项目数量,真正支持回收活动的区域化。”

 

最后,Der Grüne Punkt-DSD 销售、国际战略与市场总监 Ursula Denison 提醒说,无论是通过税收、EPR 或者其它制度,我们都必须为塑料赋予价值。

 
资料来源: www.waste360.com
1.2 塑料与循环经济相关政策探讨
图源: Baublatt

在循环经济中,设计不仅仅是创造一个可持续发展的产品,而是旨在让产品和材料保值,同时在经济体系中尽可能长时间地存在。

 

博士研究生 Marita Sauerwein 找到了一种基于蚌壳粉的新型材料,并通过 3D 打印技术表明:产品生命周期的结束其实只是一个开始。在采访了以可持续发展为目的设计的 3D 打印设计师后,Sauerwein 发现,目前使用的材料并不能实现维持产品/材料完整性或材料制成产品后价值这一目的。要想让复合材料适合 3D 打印,就必须将某种物质把蚌壳粉黏合起来。而正是这种物质影响着材料的重复利用,并决定其是否符合循环经济理念。

图源: Joost Vette

“我想实现的目标是,这种材料不仅可以用来堆肥,而且可以在更高的层面上重复使用。”她说。除了可重复使用,她还想创造一种可重复打印的材料。她先是尝试用糖水做黏合剂,做了一个灯罩,但这种材料不耐水,所以使用范围有限。在得到 TU Delft 大学应用科学系生物聚合物实验室教授的帮助后,Sauerwein 了解到可以通过离子交联将海藻酸盐制造防水材料。然后,这种反应可以被逆转,再次产生可打印的糊状物。

 

Sauerwein 认为,要想实现可持续发展或循环经济,仅有生物基材料是不够的。“你还应该考虑到在产品生命周期结束后,如何以最高水平对它进行回收和再利用。在最初的设计过程中就必须考虑再利用的问题——你不必完全知道该如何再利用某样东西,但必须确保能够实现这一目的。”

 

资料来源: phys.org

02 清洁技术

2.1 从油砂中回收石油的清洁技术

Petroteq Energy Inc. 是一家专注于开发和实施专有采油技术的综合性石油公司,并将自己定位于从油砂中回收石油的清洁技术供应商。公司的“清洁石油回收技术”(CORT)将清洁技术与油砂生产相结合。其中包括:

 

– 专有的提取技术;

– Valkor LLC 的子公司 Crosstrails Engineering LLC 最近完成了5000-10000桶/日设施的前端工程和设计(如公司2020年9月15日新闻稿所述);

– 迄今为止,试验工厂和 Asphalt Ridge 设施已生产了10000桶石油;

– 与其它方法相比,这一提取技术显著减少温室气体;

– 不留废水和尾矿池;

– 能提取高达99%的碳氢化合物;

– 95%的溶剂在闭环系统内回收和循环使用;

– 唯一产生的副产品是沥青和清洁、干燥的沙子(符合 EPA Tier 1 标准);

– 相对较小的模块化足迹,被设计为可通过增加平行生产链进行扩展;

– 以标准油品加工设备为基础设计,交货期短;

– 根据最近的前端工程和设计前研究,资本支出低,估计每桶日均 1.5-2 万美元;

– 生产成本低,估计平均 25-30 美元/桶(取决于产量);

– 具备灵活性,能够生产各种不同的最终产品。

图源: Petroteq Energy Inc.

该公司正在评估利用 CORT 可以生产的各种产品,以优化最终产品的定价。该公司还在评估调整其采油厂,实现柴油和沥青双重产出的可能性,这两者在 WTI 原油市场上都以高溢价交易。

 

Petroteq 的首席运营官 George Stapleton 如此评论 CORT 的独特性:“CORT是一种从油砂中生产石油、对环境无害的工艺,初始资本要求低,操作费用低,同时可以根据市场条件改变最终产品。

 

资料来源: www.waste360.com

03 新材料

3.1 使用可持续材料制造的眼镜

全球最大的眼镜和太阳镜制造商和分销商之一 Marchon Eyewear 公司宣布与全球特种材料公司伊士曼建立行业内首个合作关系。

伊士曼将采用其创新的碳再生技术(Carbon Renewal Technology)。这一技术能够回收一些最复杂的塑料废弃物,包括无法用传统回收技术回收的非聚酯塑料和混合塑料。通过伊士曼的创新回收技术,Marchon 生产醋酸纤维镜架的废料可以不再进入垃圾填埋场,而是用于生产新的可持续的高级眼镜。

 

通过伊士曼碳再生技术生产的 Acetate Renew 系列由生物基和经认证的回收材料制成,为 Marchon Eyewear 提供了三大优势。

 

图源: Cision

– 碳足迹更低的可持续材料,满足消费者对可持续时尚的需求。除了拥有约40%的认证回收成分和60%的生物基成分外,与传统醋酸纤维相比,Acetate Renew 还减少了温室气体排放和化石燃料的使用。

– 减少垃圾填埋。通常情况下,醋酸纤维板框架生产中使用的80%材料都是废品。这些废料不会被填埋,而是被送回伊士曼,并由伊士曼回收到新的材料中,形成一个循环生产过程。

– 相同性能。与其它可持续发展的替代品不同,Acetate Renew 与经典的醋酸纤维在性能上没有差异,确保满足佩戴者对 Marchon Eyewear 品质和款式的期待。

 

资料来源: www.prnewswire.com

 
3.2 抑制腐蚀的可持续包装选择

由 Cortec 公司创造的 BioPad® 是一种由生物基非织造材料制成的柔性缓和腐蚀装置,以独特的“绿色”技术为缓蚀提供了一种可持续的包装选择。与类似的聚氨酯泡沫发射装置相比,它的高 VpCI® 浓度和薄型设计能减少94%的材料使用。

 

 

图源: Cortec

这一由 USDA 认证的生物基产品的防腐作用是传统 VCI 同类产品的两倍,含有从玉米加工副产品中提取的可再生材料,气味较淡,具有适应性强、应用方便等特点。

 

使用时,只需将 BioPad® 放入包装中,就可以保护金属物品,物品也可以随时使用。公司表示,BioPad 对于保护黑色金属、有色金属以及各种合金(镀锌钢和碳钢、铜、黄铜、铝、锌等)都有很好的效果,且不含亚硝酸盐和铬酸盐。

 

资料来源: www.packagingstrategies.com

04 科技向善

4.1 用开源解决全球问题

红帽公司(Red Hat)社会创新项目负责人 Alexandra Machado 一直在试图动员社群开发能产生社会影响的软件。社会创新项目鼓励非营利组织充分利用开源的优势,迄今为止,该项目已经帮助 UNICEF 开发了一个汇总关键数据和信息、有助于在发展中国家实施应急计划的解决方案。这些应急计划专门为解决学童可能受到自然灾害、疾病或缺乏连接性影响的地区而制定。项目还为绿色和平组织提供了开发下一代参与平台所需的支持和专业知识,为支持者赋能,帮助他们采取行动,共同开展绿色倡议。

 

这一项目的根基是建立联系,创造伙伴关系,并为非营利组织提供在未来可持续使用的正确工具和开源专业知识。例如,新冠疫情流行期间,有许多组织独立开发相似的医疗解决方案,但通过共享平台,他们可以进行更有效和更快速的合作。

 
图源: Shutterstock / SpicyTruffel

协作对于解决和克服全球问题至关重要。为了解决这一问题,Red Hat 社会创新项目除了与合作伙伴合作开发具体的解决方案外,还积极将医疗机构与专注于联系人追踪、电子病历和实时提供临床数据的可互操作解决方案的开源项目联系起来。

 

社会创新项目为企业社会责任提供了一种新的模板,在这个模板中,技术企业可以利用自己的能力来帮助支持与自己相互依存的社区。

 
资料来源: jaxenter.com
4.2 芝加哥科技社区2020年最佳公益科技奖

数字参与和沟通技术的领导者 Evive 创建的 Evive.Care 被评选为 2020 年芝加哥最佳公益科技奖。Evive.Care 是美国首个新冠肺炎测试点数据库。自2020年3月19日快速上线以来,已经有7万多人通过这个数据库找到了附近的新冠病毒测试点。用户可以按州和县进行搜索,只需点击一下,就能获得邻近测试中心的综合列表——每个结果都附有地址、电话、地点类型、费用和预约说明。

 

Evive.Care 最初推出时涵盖了240个美国全国范围内的新冠病毒测试中心,目前这一数字已经达到了5000多个。

图源: evive.care

除了面向大众推出数据库外,Evive 还利用其数字通信解决方案 MyEvive,将其平台上400多万用户与 Evive.Care 连接起来。Evive 平台的预测分析和强大数据能力使其能够识别出符合美国疾病控制与预防中心(CDC)设定的高风险标准的个人,通过雇主及时向他们发送通知,进一步分享 Evive.Care 的相关资源和其它雇员可用福利。

 

资料来源: www.prweb.com

 

 

TECH+TREND | Have you heard of these Circular Economy applications?

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01 CIRCULAR ECONOMY

1.1 A Sustainable Lithium Battery Storage Ecosystem

Renewable energy is the cornerstone when we try to ‘Build Back Better’ after the pandemic. But due to their intermittency, renewable energy technologies need the support of battery storage for when the sun isn’t shining, and the wind isn’t blowing.

Battery storage is vital. However, the lithium-ion or lead-acid batteries traditionally employed are usually welded or glued together, making individual components difficult to replace. If one part fails, the whole battery is usually thrown away – often with more than 80% of its potential life left unused.

We can gain a lot of benefits by applying the circular economy model to the lithium battery. By being able to repair, repurpose and reuse the components within the battery pack prior to recycling, it is possible to maintain and service batteries rather than replace them, reducing both waste and cost over time

Source:energy-storage.news
What’s more, circular economy batteries also support the green jobs sector. The UK Chancellor, Rishi Sunak, has recently called for a ‘green jobs revolution’ to spearhead the country’s economic recovery. Fostering battery repair specialists in the same way that the repair garage sector works for vehicles, would support the growth of a skilled employment market centred around energy and clean technology.
 
By utilising innovative solutions like circular economy batteries, we can support the creation of an energy industry that delivers accessible, clean and reliable energy, supports the creation of green jobs and doesn’t exacerbate future waste. 
 
Source: www.energy-storage.news
1.2 Circular Economy Furniture Startup Designs its Couches for Rental and Reuse

Around 12 million tons of furniture ends up in landfills in the U.S. each year. A startup called Feather wants to change that by shifting ownership: instead of selling furniture, the company rents it out. When someone moves or wants a different sofa, he or she can send it back, and the company will clean and repair the furniture and rent it to someone else.

Source: Sustainability Google
All products are designed to be as durable as possible, and easy to clean or repair. Instead of a glossy finish on wood components, for example, the designers chose a natural finish so scratches can be buffed out. And some components use a powder coating so they can be touched up. Fitted fabric covers for easy replacement, sofa legs that work on different models for simple stocking, and rug made from recycled PET bottles for easy cleaning are all examples of their circular economy design application.
The company represents larger changes in the industry. Other startups are also focusing on furniture rental, though not always for sustainability reasons. Even Ikea is shifting to a circular model, recognizing that it’s necessary for it to reach its climate goals, and beginning to experiment with furniture rental and repair. 
Source: https://www.fastcompany.com

02 NEW MATERIAL

2.1 Turning Fibrous Waste from Palm Oil into New Material
Bosnian designer Nataša Perković recycled the fibrous waste from palm oil factories to create the Reclaimed Oil Palm collection, which was made using as little material as possible. Comprising a 3D-printed, stackable chair, three plates and a pendant lamp, the collection was developed in a bid to turn the by-products of the palm oil industry from an “environmental nuisance” into a sustainable material.
Source: dezeen
A mixture of high-tech and low-tech production methods were used when creating the products in order to demonstrate the diversity of the material. The high-tech approach was used to create the chair, which involved blending oil palm tree fibre micro powder with polylactic acid (PLA) – a bioplastic made from lactic acid – to form a new composite material. This composite can then be made into filament for 3D printing, or alternatively as pellets for injection moulding. If produced on an industrial scale, the chair would be made using injection moulding. Perković’s model adopted the 3D printing method.
Low-tech production methods were used to demonstrate how the waste material could be used to create household objects like bowls, plates and lamps. Perković and her team experimented with traditional paper-making and compression moulding techniques to create the items: soaking, boiling, beating and then finely shredding the oil palm fibre. According to the designer, this low-tech process of repurposing waste oil palm fibre using basic kitchen equipment and minimal energy could be adopted in developing countries using other cellulose waste fibres such as wood or bamboo.
Source: www.dezeen.com
2.2 Wool for PPE Masks
图源: printed electronics world
A company from New Zealand is working to develop a biodegradable face mask made of wool, to protect users against COVID-19. The company, Lincoln Agritech, is a research and development company owned by Lincoln University. The research will use newly-developed technology that completely changes the physical form of the wool fibre, creating light and paper-like membranes that look and feel much more like the PPE masks we typically see mass-produced. Dr Kelly, the new materials group manager at Lincoln Agritech, said wool was an ideal material for the filtration and binding needed to develop PPE, but its coarse structure could present limitations.

It will go towards an 18-month research programme that uses patented technology from the Wool Research Organisation (WRONZ) to change the physical format of the fibre and improve its absorption and virus-neutralising properties. The masks would be both highly effective and environmentally sustainable. The new format also enhanced the absorbency and binding properties of wool, making the fibre even more suitable for PPE use.

Source: www.msn.com

2.3 Cement-free Alternative to Conventional Concrete

Concrete is a vital cog in modern infrastructure projects. While it may have become indispensable to major developments, concrete also has a significant impact on the environment. Concrete is made by combining water, a material like sand or crushed gravel – known as aggregate – and, importantly, cement, and it’s this component that has a considerable environmental impact. According to a 2018 report from Chatham House, over 4 billion metric tons of cement are produced annually. This, according to the policy institute, accounts “for around 8 percent of global CO2 emissions.”

Source:Jung Getty
 Around the world, efforts are being made to develop new techniques and processes to reduce the environmental effects of our reliance on concrete: 
Earlier this month an Australian firm, Boral, announced the launch of a five-year partnership with the University of Technology Sydney (UTS). The company stated this partnership would look to “accelerate product innovation and the research, development, and commercialisation of low carbon concrete.” 
A Netherlands-based firm says its “WasteBasedBricks” are produced “from a minimum of 60% waste” and “suitable for interiors and exteriors.” 
Source:DB Group
In the U.K., the DB Group has developed Cemfree, which it describes as a “totally cement-free alternative to conventional concrete.” To date, the material has been used in a number of settings, including part of the M25, a major motorway in the south of England.
Another firm working in the area of sustainable building products is Kenoteq, a start-up spun out from research carried out at Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh. The firm has developed a brick produced from what it describes as “90% recycled construction and demolition waste.
Source: www.cnbc.com

03 CLEAN TECHNOLOGY

3.1 An Israeli start-up Turning Harmful Wastewater into Renewable Energy

Seeking to bring the field of wastewater treatment into the 21st century, and to embrace the popularity of circular economy technologies, Shfar’am-based AgRobics has developed a new “bio-stabilizer” technology that both improves wastewater treatment and collects biogas for energy production from the microorganism-rich waste.

Source: AGROBICS
 The start-up’s patented technology, backed by national water company Mekorot, features a combination of ancient bacteria and modern engineering. Archaea, some of the earliest forms of anaerobic life on the planet, are attached to a new type of reactor.
When wastewater is transported through the reactor, the bacteria swallows up the pollutants, cleans the water, and excretes “valuable biogas” that can be harnessed to produce renewable energy. The technology has been successfully tested at wastewater treatment sites in Karmiel and Netufa, and at a food plant in southern Israel.
While the solution could be of vital importance for industry and municipalities in developed countries, Prof. Sabbah, co-founder of AgRobics, emphasizes the potential of the circular economy approach for developing nations. “With AgRobics, communities can have reused water – and fertilizer – for agriculture, and clean energy for the residents to use.”
Source:www.jpost.com

04 TECHNOLOGY FOR GOOD

4.1 The Future of Philanthropy Lies in Blockchain Technology
The past decade has produced an eruption in diverse giving channels and options for donating, changing the patterns of how people give. According to Blackbaud, online giving has shown steady increases, growing from 6.4% of all giving in 2013 to 8.5% in 2018. Hundreds of millions of dollars in cryptocurrencies have been donated as well, with notable donations including over $100 million to Fidelity Charitable, $29 million to DonorsChoose, $4 million to The Ellen Degeneres Wildlife Fund and many more.
Source:coindesk.com
From industry startups designing programs that make donating cryptocurrency easier, to charities being more receptive to actually taking those donations, there is a general consensus that the future of philanthropic cryptocurrency ventures is a bright one.
Up until now, cryptocurrencies have been used in numerous ways to support charities and giving, including the launch of The Pineapple Fund, an anonymous fund that was able to rally over $55 million in Bitcoin that was then donated to charities. Recent studies about Bitcoin within the charity sector also reflect that cryptocurrency donations represent 1%–5% of the payment methods used for charitable donations, with over 100% growth in some countries, according to Funraise and Nonprofit Tech for Good’s 2019 “Global NGO Technology Report.”
Source:cointelegraph.com
The most recent real-life use case for cryptocurrencies and charitable donations came in early January when the COVID-19 pandemic saw nations and communities facing shortages of personal protective equipment and medical support and having an overall need for immediate assistance.
The Stellar Development Foundation launched a program to match donations given in Stellar Lumens (XLM), which was powered by Stellar-based Lumenthropy, a fundraiser that supports charitable organizations. Additionally, The Giving Block announced the start of the #CryptoCOVID19 alliance, and Paxful launched the “Africa Fund” to ensure PPE, supplies, water and other necessities were provided to communities throughout Africa.
By further incorporating both blockchain technology and cryptocurrency donations into the philanthropy sector, we will see various improvements, from the ability to track how a charity is actually using its donations if completed on the blockchain to adding another level of transparency helping to source out corruption.
Source: cointelegraph.com

TECH + TREND | 你听说过这些循环经济的多维应用吗?

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01 循环经济

1.1 可持续锂电池存储生态系统

疫情过后,在“更好地重建”的尝试过程中,可再生能源是一块重要的基石。但是由于其间歇性,可再生能源技术需要电池存储的支持,以便在没有太阳光和风时仍然可以供能。电池存储至关重要,然而,传统上使用的锂离子或铅酸电池通常被焊接或胶合在一起,使得单个组件难以更换。如果其中一部分发生故障,通常只能将整个电池扔掉,这往往会耗尽其80%的潜在寿命。将循环经济模式应用在锂电池的生产上可以获得很多好处。在回收前维修,重新组装和重新利用电池组中的组件,以维护电池取代更换,进而减少浪费和成本。

图源:energy-storage.news
此外,循环经济电池还可以支持绿色就业。英国总理 Rishi Sunak 最近呼吁进行“绿色就业革命”,以带动该国的经济复苏。比如,采用如同汽车维修厂培训技师的方式来培训电池修理专家,将支持以能源和清洁技术为中心的熟练就业市场的增长。
 
通过利用诸如循环经济电池之类的创新解决方案,我们可以支持能源工业的创建。该工业将提供易获取、清洁和可靠的能源,支持创造绿色工作机会,并且不会加剧未来的浪费。
 
资料来源: www.energy-storage.news
1.2 家具公司设计可出租和重复使用的沙发
图源: Sustainability Google
在美国,每年大约有1200万吨的家具被填埋。一家名为 Feather 的初创企业希望通过转移所有权来改变这一现状:他们不出售家具,而是出租家具。当有人搬家或想要替换沙发时,他们可以将其寄回,公司将清洁和修理家具并出租给别人。
公司所有的产品都被设计的尽可能耐用,并且易于清洁或维修。例如,采用天然的表面处理而非有光泽的亮面,这样可以方便打磨划痕。有些组件使用了粉末涂料,这样便可以轻易的对其进行修补。其它循环经济设计应用的例子还包括:使用易于更换的定制织物罩,易储存且适用于不同型号的沙发腿,以及由回收 PET 瓶制成的便于清洁的地毯。
这家初创公司代表了家具行业中发生的变化。尽管并非都是出于可持续发展的原因,有很多其它初创公司也开始专注于家具租赁。意识到其必须实现的气候目标,宜家也开始朝循环模式转变,并开始尝试家具租赁和维修服务。
资料来源: https://www.fastcompany.com

02 新型材料

2.1 将棕榈油中的纤维废料转变为新材料
波斯尼亚设计师 Nataša Perković 回收了棕榈油工厂的纤维废料,制作了再生油棕榈系列产品,该系列产品使用了尽可能少量的材料。该系列包括 3D 打印的可堆叠椅子,三个盘子和一个吊灯,其开发目的是将棕榈油产生的副产品从“环境损害”转变为可持续的材料。
图源: dezeen
在生产过程中,他们混合使用高科技和低技术生产方式,以证明材料的多样性。椅子采用高科技方法制作,将油棕树纤维微粉与聚乳酸(PLA)(一种由乳酸制成的生物塑料)混合成新的复合材料。该复合材料可以制成用于 3D 打印的长丝,或者用于制成注塑成型所需的颗粒。如需工业化规模量产,椅子将使用注塑成型的方式来制造。Perković 的这个系列采用了 3D 打印的制造方式。
低技术生产方式展示了如何将废料用于制造家用物品,例如碗,盘子和灯。Perković 和她的团队尝试了传统的造纸和压模技术来制作物品:浸泡,煮沸,打浆,然后将油棕纤维切碎。根据设计师的说法,这种使用基础厨房设备和最少能源的重新利用废油棕榈纤维的低科技工艺,可以在使用其他纤维素废纤维(例如木材或竹子)的发展中国家被采用
资料来源: www.dezeen.com
2.2 可适用于制作 PPE 口罩的羊毛
图源: printed electronics world
新西兰的一家公司正在努力开发一种由羊毛制成的可生物降解的口罩,以保护用户免受 COVID-19 的侵害。林肯农业技术公司(Lincoln Agritech)是林肯大学(Lincoln University)所有的研发公司。这项研究将使用最新开发的技术,该技术将完全改变羊毛纤维的物理形态,产生看起来像轻薄的纸状膜,其外观和感觉更像我们通常看到的 PPE 口罩。林肯农业技术公司新材料部门经理凯利博士说,羊毛是开发 PPE 所需的过滤和粘合的理想材料,但其粗大结构可能会带来局限性。
他们将进行为期18个月的研究计划,该计划将使用羊毛研究组织(WRONZ)的专利技术来改变纤维的物理形态,并改善其吸收和病毒中和特性。这些口罩既高效又环保。新一代增强了羊毛的吸收性和粘合性,使纤维更适合 PPE 使用。
资料来源: www.msn.com
2.3 常规混凝土的无水泥替代品
图源:Jung Getty
在现代基础设施项目中,混凝土是至关重要的齿轮。尽管混凝土是重大发展中不可缺的一环,混凝土对环境却有着极大的负面影响。
混凝土是通过将水,沙子或碎石之类的材料与水泥混合在一起而制成的,正是这种成分对环境造成了很大影响。根据 Chatham House(英国非盈利组织)2018年的报告,每年有超过40亿吨的水泥被生产出来。根据政策研究所的说法,这占“全球二氧化碳排放量的大约8%”。
全球范围内,人们正在努力开发新的技术和方法来减少人类对混凝土的依赖,从而减少其对环境的影响。本月初,澳大利亚公司 Boral 宣布与悉尼科技大学(UTS)建立为期五年的合作关系。该公司表示,这种合作关系将“加速产品创新以及低碳混凝土的研究,开发和商业化”。
图源:DB Group
一家位于荷兰的公司则表示,他们的“WasteBasedBricks”使用了至少60%的废物来进行生产,并且适用于室内和室外。
在英国,DB Group 开发了 Cemfree,它被描述为“完全没有水泥的传统混凝土替代品”。迄今为止,该材料已在多种环境中使用,包括英格兰南部主要高速公路 M25 的一部分。
另一家从事可持续建筑产品领域的公司是 Kenoteq,这是一家在爱丁堡赫瑞瓦特大学 (Heriot-Watt University) 进行的研究中衍生出来的初创公司。该公司开发了一种砖块,该砖块是用90%的可回收建筑和拆除废物制成的。
资料来源: www.cnbc.com

03 清洁能源及相关技术

3.1 将有害废水转化为可再生能源
图源: AGROBICS
目的将循环经济技术结合到废水处理领域中,总部位于 Shfar’am 的 AgRobics 开发了一种新的“生物稳定剂”技术,该技术既可以改善废水处理,又可以从富含微生物的废弃物中收集沼气并产出能源。
这家初创企业的专利技术得到了国家自来水公司 Mekorot 的支持,他们将地球上一些最古老的厌氧生命形式 – 古细菌,连接到新型反应器上。是古老细菌和现代工程技术的一种完美结合。
当废水通过反应器输送时,细菌会吞下污染物,净化水质,并排出可用来再生能源的“有价沼气”。这项技术已经在 Karmiel 和 Netufa 的废水处理厂以及以色列南部的一家食品厂成功进行了测试。
尽管该解决方案对发达国家的工业和市政机构至关重要,但 AgRobics 的联合创始人萨巴赫教授强调了循环经济更可以为发展中国家带来发展潜力:“有了 AgRobics,社区可以将再生水和肥料用于农业发展,并有清洁能源供居民使用。”
资料来源:www.jppost.com

04 科技向善

4.1 区块链支持未来慈善事业发展
图源:coindesk.com
在过去的十年中,各种各样的捐赠渠道和捐赠方式层出不穷,进而改变了人们的捐赠习惯。依 Blackbaud 统计,在线捐赠呈现稳定增长状态,总捐赠从2013年的6.4%增长到2018年的8.5%。数亿美元的加密货币也被用于捐赠,其中包括捐赠给 Fidelity Charitable 的1亿多美元,DonorsChoose 的2900万美元,和 Ellen Degeneres Wildlife Fund 的400万美元。
从初创公司开始设计更便捷的数字捐赠货币程序,到慈善机构对数字捐赠的接受度慢慢提升,我们可以认为,慈善数字货币企业的未来是光明的。
到目前为止,加密货币已经以多种方式用于支持慈善事业和捐赠,包括推出了 The Pineapple Fun 这个匿名基金。它募集了超过5500万美元的比特币,然后将其捐赠给慈善机构。Funraise 和 Nonprofit Tech for Good 的2019年“全球 NGO 技术报告”显示,最近在慈善领域内有关比特币的研究反映出,加密货币捐赠占慈善捐赠付款方式的1%–5%,在某些国家/地区的增长甚至高达100%以上。
图源:cointelegraph.com
在加密货币和慈善捐赠的最新实际使用案例是在2020年1月初,当时 COVID-19 大流行使各个国家和社区面临个人防护设备和医疗支持的短缺,并且需要即时援助。
The Stellar Development Foundation 启动了一项计划,捐赠与 Stellar Lumens (XLM) 所幕款项同金额的捐款,该计划由位于 Stellar 的 Lumenthropy(一个支持慈善机构的募款组织)提供支持。此外,Giving Block 宣布开始#CryptoCOVID19 联盟,Paxful 也发起了“非洲基金”向全非洲的社区提供个人防护设备,用品,水和其他必需品。
如果慈善捐款能够在区块链上完成,那么我们就能更好地追踪每一笔捐款的去向,从而提升整个系统的透明度,减少腐败的发生。
资料来源: cointelegraph.com

TECH + TREND | Producing Cosmetics and Clean Energy with CO2

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01 CIRCULAR ECONOMY

1.1 On-demand Microinsurance for Circular Economy
Omocom, a Swedish startup that provides on-demand microinsurance for sharing economy, in order to empower the transformation into circular economy. It is difficult for the traditional insurance industry to adapt insurance policies to the modern sharing society’s demands for flexibility. Omocom partnered with a Swedish peer-to-peer marketplace APP, where users can optionally insure belongings when getting help to move them from one place to another.
The premium ranges between €2 – €6 and covers damages up to €150 – €1000 with no deductible payments. Omocom’s vision is to get more people to find the satisfaction of sharing and thus contribute to a nicer and more sustainable world. Omocom is as much about insurance as it is about creating incentives and support for a circular economy.
Source: tech.eu, forbes.com
1.2 The Circular Economy of Data Centers
Source: Sustainability Google
In order to cut down the waste and convert whatever waste is left to wealth for their material-intensive Data Centers, Google partners with the Ellen MacArthur Foundation to employ circular economy principles. They procure products that are built in a way that can be made again even after they are scrapped. In short, refurbish, repair, reuse, and recycle.
In 2016 alone, Google used 22% of the components for machine upgrades and 36% for servers from the refurbished inventory of their own servers. In order to maximize recycling, Google uses a multi-step destruction process to ensure that the data doesn’t fall into the wrong hands. 
Google redistributes commercially useful excess component inventory by wiping clean the unused components and getting them checked multiple times before redistributing them for a resale on the secondary market. This strategy saves Google quite an amount of money.
Source: analyticsindiamag.com
1.3 Orange Juice for Combating Food Waste
Source: thesustainableangle.org
Globally, it can be estimated that orange juice production generates between 0.8 and 1 million tons of by-products each year. It has been suggested that the peel and pomace of the fruit contain higher levels of dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity compared to the fruit itself.
In an effort to leverage these nutrients for a functional purpose, the researchers produced a flour – known as orange by-product flour (OBPF) to make cookies.The study concluded that OBPF presented “interesting” characteristics. The development of fiber-enriched foods, such as cookies, is not only possible, but “well-accepted by tasters”.
Therefore, according to study authors, its production represents a key strategy for the orange juice processing industries towards the application of a circular economy in the food system.
Source: BeverageDaily.com

02 NEW MATERIAL

2.1 CO2 for Cosmetic Product Raw Material
Personal care giant Beiersdorf and specialty chemicals supplier Evonik have teamed up to look for ways to use carbon dioxide as a source for producing sustainable raw materials for beauty products. “By using carbon dioxide as the starting material for the production of valuable raw materials, we can close the carbon cycle – exactly as demonstrated by nature with photosynthesis,” said Thomas Hass, lead on artificial photosynthesis at Evonik. The technology to develop the artificial photosynthesis model had already been funded under a separate BMBF (German Federal Ministry of Education and Research) project ‘Rheticus’ with industrial manufacturing conglomerate Siemens.
According to Monique Large, futurologist and founder of trend consultation firm Pollen Consulting, in terms of the opportunities of carbon capture for the beauty category, whilst a significant way off and currently mere “fiction” for cosmetics largely due to cost, there could be room for a future where personal care and cosmetics companies incorporated captured carbon as a material into products.
Source:cosmeticsdesign-europe.com
2.2 Spidersilk: A Durable, Sustainable and Biodegradable New Material
Source: printed electronics world
Seevix Material Sciences Ltd. develops and manufactures synthetic SVX™ spidersilk. It possesses natural spidersilk’s extraordiary strength and elasticity and is durable, yet sustainable and biodegradable as it is bioprotein functional silk wich carries the sustainability characteristics of the natural fiber.
The patented SVX™ synthetic spidersilk, backed by over ten years of research at the Hebrew University, is manufactured by means of a single-step production process, enabling scalable, green, commercial manufacturing that reduces production time and costs.
Source: prnewswire.com
2.3 Self-repairing Rubber Showing New Potentials of Industrial Waste
Recently, researchers have discovered a new kind of rubber and catalyst that together can be used with low energy consumption to make flexible, repairable, sustainable objects—including car tires. The new rubber material, made from cheap and plentiful industrial waste products sulfur, canola cooking oil and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) from petroleum refining, can be completely repaired and returned to its original strength in minutes—even at room temperature—with an amine catalyst. It can be seamlessly repaired if damaged and can also be recycled.
Rubber bricks made out of this polymer can be chemically joined by applying the catalyst. In some cases, the amine catalyst causes the rubber to bond in just a few minutes, and it can be done at room temperature. This study reveals a new concept in the repair, adhesion and recycling of sustainable rubber.
Source: phys.org
2.4 Plant-based Materials for Home-good Designers
Dutch designer Nienke Hoogvliet weaves abundantly-available seaweed into rugs, chairs and tables in her Sea Me collection. Source: AP PHOTO
There are many examples of plant-based materials adopted by home-good designers demonstrated at Frankfurt’s Heimtextil 2020 trade fair.
Swiss company Qwstion’s Bananatex – a sturdy, waterproof yet biodegradable cloth woven from Philippine abaca banana-plant fiber. It is being used to make totes and bags. African company, Green-Nettle Textile in Kenya, harvests the nettles that grow on the country’s steep hillsides. Besides being transformable into a linen-like fabric, the drought-tolerant nettle crops help curb soil erosion in areas not suitable for agriculture.
In Mexico, a team of designers and NPOs have worked with a village of Mixtec farmers and herders to transform waste from corn plants into furniture. Hemp is another popular and environmental-friendly fiber in the textile market since it is durable and its production involves about half the amount of water as cotton’s.
Other attempts including temporary pavilion made of timber, mycelium fiber and cattails (Pascal Leboucq, Krown Design studio) and light fixtures made of mycelium or mushroom fiber (Sebastian Cox, Ninela Ivanova) also show the potential of new materials.
Source: manilatimes.net
2.5 Automotive Industry Started to Use Sustainable Fibers
Making a new car generates almost as much carbon pollution as it does to drive it. There are new sustainable and biodegradable fibers available for car interiors as the alternative of non-recyclable synthetic fibers to help reduce the detrimental impact on the environment caused by the automotive industry. The wood-based products are biodegradable, meaning that once a vehicle is scrapped, the textiles will not cause harm to the environment as conventional materials do, and they can be removed and used as compost. Source: azocleantech.com

03 CLEAN TECHNOLOGY

3.1 Honeywell UOP Hydrogen Tech for Clean Fuel Cells
Source: uop.honeywell.com
 
Honeywell announced that Beijing HyPower Energy Technology Ltd., a leading hydrogen energy technology provider in China, will adopt.
Honeywell UOP technologies to supply high-purity hydrogen for fuel cells. Unlike fossil fuels, such as petrol and diesel, hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed in a fuel cell, produces only water, electricity, and heat. With hydrogen energy growing in importance, and concerns about global warming, automobile manufacturers worldwide have invested in developing hydrogen fuel cells to power vehicles and generate electricity.
Honeywell UOP hydrogen purification solutions provide targeted hydrogen recovery and high product purity levels. Hydrogen can be produced on purpose or can be a valuable by-product.
Source: arabianindustry.com
3.2 Ammonia as a Green Shipping Fuel: The Viking Energy Project
Viking Energy Project is a five-year demo project aiming to build the first zero-emissions supply vessel. It uses ammonia-powered fuel cells. It sees ammonia as a key alternative fuel for future use in shipping vessels, which will reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of the shipping industry as a whole. Tests are being conducted on dual-fuel and spark-ignition gasoline engines. According to Kaj Portin, General Manager at Wärtsilä Marine, the first tests have shown promising results, and combustion parameters are continuously being optimized to improve performance. Source: azocleantech.com
3.3 Sustainable Aviation Fuels:CO2 Capture & Solar Thermochemical Conversion
Source: greencarcongress.com
Representatives of the Lufthansa Group and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zürich), with ETH spin-offs Climeworks and Synhelion, have signed a joint Letter of Intent for a possible cooperation to accelerate the market launch of Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF).
The researchers and engineers at ETH Zurich have developed and optimized the solar reactor technology for producing syngas by splitting H2O and CO2 and made it possible to extract CO2 from the atmosphere. Together with water and with the help of concentrated sunlight, it can be converted into a synthesis gas that can be used to produce jet fuel. Such a fuel releases only as much CO2 as the amount previously extracted from the atmosphere.
Source: greencarcongress.com

TECH + TREND|用二氧化碳生产化妆品原料和清洁能源,让你脑洞大开的新材料

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01 循环经济

1.1 符合循环经济的小额保险
Omocom 是一家瑞典创业公司,为共享经济提供按需小额保险,以推动迈向循环经济的转型。传统保险业很难使保险产品适应现代共享社会对灵活性的需求。Omocom 与瑞典的点对点市场应用程序合作,让用户在两点一线之间运输物品时,可以选择为资产购买保险。保费在2欧元至6欧元之间,涵盖最高150欧元至1000欧元的损失,且无需扣除自付额。他们的愿景是让更多的人找到共享的满足感,从而为更美好,更可持续的世界做出贡献。
资料来源: tech.eu, forbes.com
1.2 数据中心的循环经济
图源: Sustainability Google
谷歌通过与艾伦·麦克阿瑟基金会的合作,在数据中心践行循环经济的理念,将浪费转化为收入。在采购时,他们会选择在报废之后可以再回收制造的产品,也就是力行翻新,维修,重复使用和回收。
单单2016年,谷歌对服务器翻新后的组件进行了再利用,22%用于计算机升级,36%用于服务器。为了最大程度地提高回收利用率,谷歌还使用了多步骤销毁流程来确保数据不会落入他人手中。抹除干净未使用的组件并再三检查后,谷歌还会重新分发剩余的组件库存,在二级市场上进行转售。这个策略帮谷歌节省了许多费用。
资料来源: analyticsindiamag.com
1.3 对抗食物浪费的橙汁
图源: thesustainableangle.org
据估计,在全球范围内,每年橙汁的生产会产生0.8至100万吨的副产品。近来有人提出,这些副产品或许有其独特的价值——与水果本身相比,水果的果皮和果渣含有更高水平的膳食纤维,酚类化合物和抗氧化剂。为了利用这些营养物质,研究人员生产了一种被称为橙色副产品粉(OBPF)的材料来制作饼干。
该研究得出的结论是,OBPF 不仅可以开发富含纤维的食品(例如饼干),而且试吃者们的接受度也很高。因此,研究作者认为,橙汁加工业有希望在其食品系统中应用循环经济的理念,而 OBPF 的生产可能是其中关键的一环。
资料来源: BeverageDaily.com

02 新型材料

2.1 用二氧化碳制作的化妆品原料
个人护理巨头拜尔斯道夫(Beiersdorf)和特殊化学品供应商赢创(Evonik)正联手研究如何把二氧化碳作为生产美容产品可持续原料的来源。赢创公司人工光合作用负责人托马斯·哈斯(Thomas Hass)表示:“使用二氧化碳作为起始材料,生产有价值的原料,可以让我们关闭碳循环,正如自然界的光合作用所呈现的那样。”工业制造集团西门子(Siemens)已经在开发人工光合作用模型的技术,并在另一个 BMBF(德国 Federal Ministry of Education and Research)项目“ Rheticus”中获得资助。
根据趋势咨询公司 Pollen Consulting 创始人,同时也是未来学家的 Monique Large 的说法,提取碳排放并将其作为个人护理和化妆品原材料之一的做法,虽然仍有很长的路要走,现阶段由于成本问题,这一做法仍不实际,但在未来,这一件事仍有其发生的可能性。
资料来源: cosmeticsdesign-europe.com
2.2 耐用、可持续和可生物降解的蜘蛛丝
图源: printed electronics world
Seevix 材料科学有限公司开发并生产了合成蜘蛛丝 SVX™。SVX™ 是一种具有生物蛋白功能的丝,和天然纤维有一样的可持续性。
Seevix 拥有专利的 SVX™ 合成蜘蛛丝,得到希伯来大学十多年研究的支持,采用单步生产工艺制造,实现可扩展的绿色商业化生产,从而缩短了生产时间和成本。
资料来源: prnewswire.com
2.3 自修复橡胶:工业废物或有新用途
人员近期发现了一种新型的橡胶和催化剂,它们可以用于制造柔性,可修复,可持续的物体,且能耗很低。这种新型的橡胶材料是由廉价且大量的工业废品硫,菜籽油和炼油厂生产的双环戊二烯(DCPD)制成的,即使在室温下,也可以通过胺催化剂完全修复,并在数分钟内恢复其原始强度。如果遭到损坏,它可以无缝修理,也可以被回收。
由这种聚合物制成的橡胶砖可以通过施加催化剂进行化学连接。在某些情况下,胺催化剂会使橡胶在短短几分钟内粘合,这一过程在室温下就可以完成完成。这项研究揭示了维修,粘合和回收可持续橡胶方面的新概念。
资料来源: phys.org
2.4 家居设计师的新材料尝试
荷兰设计师 Nienke Hoogvliet 的作品,她的 Sea Me 系列将大量可用的海藻编织成可以铺在椅子和桌子上的毯子。图源:AP PHOTO
在法兰克福的 Heimtextil 2020博览会上,许多家居设计师在作品中采用了植物性的材料。
例如瑞士公司 Qwstion 的 Bananatex ——一种坚固,防水但可生物降解的布料,由菲律宾蕉麻香蕉植物纤维织成,用于制造不同种类的手提包。一家非洲公司(Green-Nettle Textile in Kenya),收割生长在该国陡峭山坡上的荨麻。耐旱的荨麻作物不仅可以转化为亚麻状织物,还可以帮助那些不适合农业生产的地区缓解水土流失的问题。
在墨西哥,一个由设计师和非营利组织组成的团队与米斯特克的一个村庄的农牧民合作,将玉米废料转化为家具。柔麻是纺织品市场上另一种流行的环保纤维,因为它经久耐用,其生产所消耗的水量约为棉花的一半。
其他尝试——包括用木材,菌丝体纤维和香蒲制成的临时凉亭(由 Pascal Leboucq,Krown Design 工作室设计制作)和用菌丝体或蘑菇纤维制成的灯具(由 Sebastian Cox,Ninela Ivanova 设计制作)也显示出了新材料的潜力。
资料来源: manilatimes.net
2.5 汽车行业和可持续纤维
制造新车会产生几乎与驾驶时等量的碳污染。反应较其他行业迟缓的汽车行业,近期开始尝试将新的可持续和可生物降解的纤维可用于汽车内饰,以替代不可回收的合成纤维,帮助减少汽车工业对环境的不利影响。
这种木质的产品是可生物降解的,这意味着一旦报废车辆,其中内饰的织物将不会像传统材料那样对环境造成危害,可以将其清除并用作堆肥。
资料来源: azocleantech.com

03 清洁能源及相关技术

3.1 霍尼韦尔的清洁燃料电池
图源: uop.honeywell.com
 
 
霍尼韦尔(Honeywell)宣布,中国领先的氢能技术供应商北京海珀尔氢能科技有限公司将采用霍尼韦尔 UOP 技术为燃料电池提供高纯度氢。不同于汽油和柴油等化石燃料,氢是一种清洁燃料,在燃料电池中消耗时,它仅产生水,电和热量。随着氢能的重要性日益增长,以及对全球变暖的担忧,全球的汽车制造商已投资开发氢燃料电池来为车辆提供动力和发电。
霍尼韦尔 UOP 氢气纯化的解决方案,可以有针对性地回收高纯度氢气。氢气可以主动地被生产,也可以是有价副产品。
资料来源: arabianindustry.com
3.2 绿色运输燃料氨:维京能源项目
维京能源项目是一个为期五年的示范项目,旨在建造第一艘零排放供应船。它使用氨动力燃料电池,让氨气成为将来船舶使用的主要替代燃料,这将减少整个航运业的温室气体排放。目前团队正在对双燃料和火花点火汽油发动机进行测试。
瓦锡兰海事总经理 Kaj Portin 表示,首批测试已显示出鼓舞人心的结果,他们也在不断优化燃烧时的相关参数,以提高燃烧效率。
资料来源: azocleantech.com
3.3 可持续航空燃料: 二氧化碳提取与太阳热能转化
图源: greencarcongress.com
汉莎航空集团和苏黎世瑞士联邦技术学院(苏黎世联邦理工学院)的代表与 ETH衍生公司 Climeworks 和 Synhelion 签署了联合意向书,寻求可能的合作以加速可持续航空燃料(SAF)的市场投放。
苏黎世联邦理工学院的研究人员和工程师已经开发和优化了通过分解水(H2O)和二氧化碳(CO2)来生产合成气体的太阳能反应器技术,并实现了从大气中提取二氧化碳的可能性。在强烈太阳光的帮助下,二氧化碳可以与水结合并转化为合成气体,用于生产喷气燃料,这种燃料不会再释放额外的二氧化碳。
资料来源: greencarcongress.com